The Effects of Immigration to the Development of the U.S as A Nation

The Effects of Immigration to the Development of the U.S as A Nation  

Tori Nuariza Sutanto

 

Introduction

 

Immigration is completely necessarry part of strategy to improve economic growth and prosperity. If a nation succeeds in  giving prosperity to the citizen, this condition directly influences the development in another aspects because they can solve the prosperity problem.

For good reason, It is often said the United States is a nation of immigrants. Almost every person in the United States is descended from someone who arrived from another country.  It is true that America was built by people who came from Europe a few centuries ago, but are there so many immigrants nows.

According to Blotnick 1987 : 108,  Immigrants come from different countries, speak different languages, have different religious beliefs. But what is different is not necessarily worse, and probably the main thing that distinguishes immigrants is their attitude towards their future.

The causes of immigration

Hatton and Williamson (1998) view immigratio  from a country during this time as being caused by up to five different factors:

 (a) the difference in real wages between the country and the United States

 (b) the rate of population growth in the country 20 or 30 years before

 (c) the degree of industrialization and urbanization in the home country

 (d) the volume of previous immigrants from that country or region

(e) economic and political conditions in the United States.

 

According to John Carey, 1989 ; 106, “America has a long heritage of welcoming immigrants, and throughout its history, the country has been reshaped and renewed by the talents, energy, and enterprise of new citizens. They may prove to be a critical advantage in the global economic competition of the 1990’s and the early 21st century”.

            This essay aims to reveal the effects of immigration to the development of the United States as a nation. I would like to explore how the effects of certain aspects such as politic, social, culture and economy construct the development of the U.S. This lead to the contradiction whether the immigration give beneficial of bad effects to the United States.

  Lanjutkan membaca “The Effects of Immigration to the Development of the U.S as A Nation”

“FDR New Deal VS Hoover Solution in 1932 U.S Election”

“FDR New Deal VS Hoover Solution in 1932 U.S Election”

Tori Nuariza Sutanto1

 

  • A Glance About 1932 United States Presidential Election

According to Martin Kelly http://about.com in his writing of “Top 10 Significant Presidential Election in American History”, The United States of America presidential election of 1932 was on the third rank among top ten presidential election2.

The Republican Party nominated the incumbent US President Herbert C. Hoover as its Presidential nominee. The Democratic Party chose Franklin D. Roosevelt as its presidential nominee. The Socialist Party nominated Norman Thomas as its presidential nominee.

The United States presidential election of 1932 took place as the effects of the 1929 Wall Street Crash and the Great Depression were being felt intensely across the country. The 1932 US election was held in the midst of the Great Depression.  With the background of the Great Depression, Franklin Delano Roosevelt stressed upon the need of greater economic stability during his campaigns. He also promised to end the prohibition era, while unfortunately the incumbent President Herbert Hoover was portrayed publicly as an  ineffectual leader who was not capable of running the country in troubled times.

Eventually, The 1932 U.S Preseidential Election showed a shocked result where Franklin Delano Roosevelt, democratic party candidate, won 57,4 % of the popular votes. While his rival, Hoover gained much less about 39,7 % of the popular votes. Franklin Delano Roosevelt also got the support of 472 electoral votes while Hoover gained 59 electoral votes3.

                Franklin D. Roosevelt confidently won the election as a result of falling  Herbert Hoover’ s popularity in the society. The voters felt hoover was unable to reverse the economic collapse. Franklin D. Roosevelt used this momentum to gain his popularity in contrast with the Hoover.

Lanjutkan membaca ““FDR New Deal VS Hoover Solution in 1932 U.S Election””

“Menerapkan Nilai-Nilai Islam Di Lingkungan Universitas : Kehidupan Ilmu dan Teknologi”

 

“Menerapkan Nilai-Nilai  Islam Di Lingkungan Universitas : Kehidupan Ilmu dan Teknologi”

Dr. Amien Rais

 

GambarAda beberapa hal yang perlu kita catat jika berbicara tentang penerapan nilai-nilai Islam di dalam kehidupan universitas. Pada dasarnya universitas di mana saja di dunia ini mempunyai posisi strategis yang sangat menentukan perjalanan hidup masing-masing  bangsa dan negara. Malahan kita dapat melihat kualitas suatu bangsa dan negara lewat universitas-universitas yang dimilikinya. Sebagai contoh, jika kehidupan universitas sudah tidak dapat lagi mencerminkan kehidupan yang demokratis, maka dapat dipastikan bahwa otoriterisme pasti sudah melanda di tengah-tengah masyarakat. Sebaliknya, jika kehidupan universitas dapat menegakkan kehidupan yang demokratis, dengan disertai nilai-nilai moral dan ethik yang luhur, maka dapat diharapkan bahwa kehidupan masyarakatnya juga akan secara perlahan mengikuti kehidupan demokratis universitas.

Disamping itu mudah dipahami pula, bahwa posisi strategis universitas terlihat dalam kenyataan, betapa para alumni universitas telah memegang posisi-posisi kunci dalam masyarakat. Baik di negara maju maupun di negara berkembang, produk universitas yang berwujud para alumni itu sesungguhnya berperan sangat besar dalam mengarahkan proses sosial, politik, ekonomi, dan kultur masyarakat, termasuk juga dalam proses pengembangan ilmu dan teknologi. Makalah ini hanya membatasi diri pada pembahasan bagaimana seharusnya mengarahkan pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (Ip-tek) sesuai dengan nilai-nilai dasar Islam.

Literatur tentang perkembangan Ip-tek dewasa ini pada umunya ditandai dengan ambi valensi antara optimisme dan pesimisme. Jika kita melihat kehebatan dan manfaat penggunaan ip-tek bagi kesejahteraan ummat manusia, kita menjadi optimis. Sebaliknya, jika kita menyaksikan penyalahgunaan teknologi yang dapat berakibat fatal terhadap peradaban manusia, kita lantas menjadi pesimis. Teknologi memang dapat digunakan untuk kebaikan maupun untuk kejahatan. Tergantung pada bagaimana cara kita menerapkan teknologi tersebut. Lanjutkan membaca ““Menerapkan Nilai-Nilai Islam Di Lingkungan Universitas : Kehidupan Ilmu dan Teknologi””

The Emerging of Freudanism in America

The Emerging of Freudanism in America

Tori Nuariza Sutanto

Introduction  

In the beginning of 20th century the development of American thought  became numb until  Dr. Sigmund Freud  woke Americans up from their slumber.  The rapid growth of Freudanism influences the Americans in some aspects of life after the coming of Sigmund Freud to America in 1909. This essay will provide the social historical background of the development of Freudanism in America and try to reveal why freudanism emerged at that time.

One of the little known facts in the life of one of the historic movers and shakers of the 20th century is that Dr. Sigmund Freud spent one month in the U.S. during August and September of 1909, the year in which William Howard Taft became President.

Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis Theory

In the early 20th century, Sigmund Freud’s theories of psychoanalysis, slowly but powerfully, caught on in America (Fancher, 1998). America has always been, historically and philosophically, a land of individualism, personal discovery, and drive toward self-knowledge and self-actualization. Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis offered Americans ideas much akin to those with which they were already comfortable (self-actualization, self-knowledge, self-understanding).

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was the founder of modern-day psychoanalysis, in Vienna, in the early years of the 20th century. Freud developed the theory of the unconscious, including the theory of the idegosuperego triad that governs, from within, human behavior. Lanjutkan membaca “The Emerging of Freudanism in America”

Review of Playground of Hostility (Howard Gordon)

Although slightly uneven, this debut collection affectingly depicts black life in upstate New York over the past four decades. In these nine stories, racism and violence constantly threaten the family and the community at large. “The Playground of Hostility,” set in 1954, deepens these themes through its dramatization of voluntary segregation among children during recess and of a boy’s Cold War neurosis. In “Man Walks Son, Self,” a boy named Junior chronicles nightly walks with his father while his mother lies dying, her illness the source of rumors that literally invade the home and follow father and son on their nocturnal strolls. Junior recounts the ways in which both parents teach him to bear up under the shadow of racist innuendo. The title story examines the estrangement between its narrator, who is secretly dying of cancer, and his older brother, Cameron, who harbors within his soul the cancer of hatred. Gordon, whose work has been published in Essence and other periodicals, is better at choosing themes than he is at delineating them in a consistent tone; at his best he gives us new ways of looking at the lingering problems of povertyand race relations. (Apr.)

The African in Me: Stories Howard Gordon, Author George Braziller, http://www.publishersweekly.com/978-0-8076-1296-5

Playground of Hostility, a short story written by Howard Gordon, portrays the discrimination between Whites and African Americans in the 50s in terms of using public facilities. The situation in this story took an example of segregation in the hospital and school. How the african american felt the segregation in educational facilities and hospitals became the author point of view. This essay will provide my view on the situation within told in the story of Playground of Hostility. Lanjutkan membaca “Review of Playground of Hostility (Howard Gordon)”

komentar tentang film Gie (2005)

“Pengantar Diskusi Film Gie : Catatan Seorang Demonstran”

Tori Nuariza Sutanto

Gambar

Film sebagai media komunikasi massa memiliki fungsi antara lain sebagai pembawa pesan, pembawa ideologi, representasi masyarakat , propaganda, dll. Tergantung apa yang kemudian menjadi dasar film tersebut apakah karya sastra, dinamika sosial politik, ideologi, rekontruksi peristiwa, dsb. Dalam proses mengkaji, membedah ataupun menganalisa sebuah film perlu diperhatikan teori dasar film mise en scene ; setting, costumes, decorations, lighting, make-up, cinematography, sound dll.  Selain dalam hal produksi, proses pemaknaan sebuah film merupakan hal yang menarik dan dapat pula dikaji dari berbagai sisi.  Lanjutkan membaca “komentar tentang film Gie (2005)”

Mengenal Modern dan Postmodern

Gambarhttp://rolephant85.deviantart.com/art/modern-vs-postmodern-73686964

Manusia selalu mengalami perubahan-perubahan selama hidup baik secara individu maupun secara kolektif dalam konteks kehidupan bermasyarakat. Perubahan- perubahan (Soekanto, 2006:259) itu dapat berupa perubahan dalam hal nilai-nilai sosial, norma-norma sosial, pola-pola perilaku organisasi, susunan lembaga kemasyarakatan, lapisan-lapisan dalam masyarakat, kekuasaan dan wewenang, interaksi sosial dan lain sebagainya. Dalam hal ini, perubahan pada lembaga-lembaga kemasyarakatan di dalam suatu masyarakat, yang mempengaruhi sistem sosialnya, termasuk nilai-nilai, sikap-sikap, pola-pola perilaku diantara kelompok masyarakat disebut sebagai perubahan sosial.

Daniel Bell (1999) membandingkan tentang 3 karakteristik era borjuasi dalam konteks produksi diantaranya pre-industrial society, industrial-society, dan post-industrial society. Era Post Industrial society ditandai pasca selesainya perang dunia ke II dan bergesernya mode of production dari  industri pabrik menuju pemrosesan informasi. Sementara Alvin Toffler menjelaskan 3 gelombang peradaban manusia antara lain era agrikultur, industri dan informasi. Perkembangan zaman yang begitu cepat dari masyarakat agrikultur menuju masyarakat industri hingga menjadi masyarakat informasi memang tak dapat dihindari, seiring dengan itu terjadi perubahan-perubahan sosial di dalam masyarakat. Dalam konteks ini, perubahan  masyarakat agraris, dimana sumber kekuasaan berupa tanah dan sumber daya alam, menjadi masyarakat industri dimana  penguasaan terhadap alat-alat produksi  menjadi  alat kekuasaan dan pada akhirnya masa kini yang disebut sebagai era informasi. Terminologi seperti information revolution, globalization, postmodern society mulai menjadi wacana-wacana intelektual yang menarik pasca penemuan komputer dan  teknologi digital ini. Hubungan sosial ataupun interaksi di dalam masyarakat pun berubah total dari sebelumnya. Lanjutkan membaca “Mengenal Modern dan Postmodern”