Intellectuals Role In The American Revolution

Intellectuals Role In The American Revolution

Tori Nuariza Sutanto

Introduction

The success and failure of a Nation can be determined by their historical process” (Prof. Djoko Suryo)

            That it is a quote from Prof. Djoko Suryo, a prominent Indonesian Historian in which I have ever been followed on a seminar. Intelligence to read age signs or zeitgeist, futuristic vision and orientation, adaptive determination, integrity and commitment were one of important aspects of the social change and reform formula. Social engineering can not be succeeded without an understanding of social dynamics, culture and historical experience. In addition, historical actor and historical agent plays an important and vital role on that process, at least that what I have been taught from Prof. Djoko Suryo, who in this way to have that academic arguments analyzying ‘French Revolution’ and ‘Industrial Revolution’. Daniel Dhakidae, Cendekiawan dan Kekuasaan (2003), stated that intellectuals can make a thing that is never imagined before. This paper would like to expose the role of intellectuals in the American Revolution, how the intellectuals can be historical agents and actors to force radical change. This paper objective is on the intellectuals role, the framing of revolution, and its outcome. I realize that the American Revolution is an old topic that has been academic discourses, debates, and discussions, but this paper is trying to open up a different perspective to see the American revolution. This paper will also describe the trend of interpretations on the American revolution by some scholars, in an attempt to be more understand this revolution. Lanjutkan membaca “Intellectuals Role In The American Revolution”

Occupy Wall Street : A Kind of Postmodern Social Movement

Occupy Wall Street : A Kind of Postmodern Social Movement

Tori Nuariza Sutanto

Introduction

“We are the 99% that will no longer tolerate the greed and corruption of the 1%”, is a popular slogan of Occupy Wall Street (OWS) Protesters means, that if economy get better those (1%) take the advantage, while if the economy get worse We (99%) that inevitably have to be responsible. We Are the 99%, is the central message that represents the symbol of U.S majority and word that faced same experience and struggle caused of ruling class and capitalist exploitation in the economic, social, and political structure (Iqra, 2013). The idea of choosing Wall Street, a street in the Manhattan New York that the basis of world financial corporations where many Bankers worked, Bankers was blamed as the actor caused crisis that academically called monopoly-finance-capital. The state reacted toward the crisis by forcing bail out to collapsed companies and corporations, while on the other hand, U.S majority became jobless, a lack of housing settlement, low income, and felt the higher cost of education and health caused by the crisis. Therefore, The consequence of U.S 2008 economic crisis, triggered ‘Occupying’ movement by thousands of U.S citizens with background of ; old, young, middle class, jobless, intellectual, student, lecture, and activist. The topic of Occupy Wall Street has been a debate and popular topic on the scope of social studies, Marxist, Social-democratic, Left-wing activist, social sciences, and etc. that it not only became U.S phenomenon but also a global phenomenon since it spread out rapidly worldwide. Following This, this paper objective is to find that Occupy Wall Street can be considered as kind of post-modern social movement. I will employ the Robert Walker (1992) modes of social change and analyze whether OWS classified as the Walker modes of social change in the context of post-modern framework. This paper distinctive with previous research, essay, or arguments, are 1) its insight of anatomy of the OWS in the context of philosophically postmodernism discourse and the practically in the impact  of post-modernity (reality of post-industrial society) framework 2) its analysis of the dynamics, characteristics, and actors of the movement 3) using Walker modes of social change to see historically same spirit, form of characteristics of Reform and social change in the U.S that there is a possibility of new modes of social change. Lanjutkan membaca “Occupy Wall Street : A Kind of Postmodern Social Movement”

The Relevance of Protestant Ethics and the Development of Early Capitalism

The Relevance of Protestant Ethics and the Development of

Early Capitalism

Tori Nuariza Sutanto

“The Character of United States America – its language, laws, constitution, political structure, economic system – is British to the core” (Joseph Fallon, 2001)

            Regarding to the statement of Joseph Fallon, in his articles of the British character of the United States of America (2001), it will be interesting  for me to scrutinize –what has been discussed frequently in almost hundred years -, the American character.  John Jay, one of U.S early leaders, emphasized in the Federalist Papers, wrote that Americans are a people descended from the same ancestors, speaking the same language, professing the same religion, attached from the same principles of the government, very similar in the customs and manners, that Americans treasured were British.  According to what John Jay and Joseph Fallon arguments, to draw what happened in the early historic of Colonial America, was the fact that there was homogeneity of religion. The entire population of early United States, which numbered approximately four million, both Black and White, was Christian, specifically protestant and adherents to the British denominations, Anglicanism and Prebystrianism (Fallon, 2001 :4). For that reason, Luther S Ludtke (1992), in his article The search of American Character, stated that Americans were White Anglo-Saxon Protestant. In pursuing the Freedom of religion and prosperity, those who are the early settlers of America particularly the Anglicanism or Puritanism, dynamically shaping the American Character. While most Americans today reject certain features of Puritanism (e.g religious intolerance), however, some puritan beliefs have had an impact on American political-religious development and culture, Puritanism’s Legacy for instance; Covenant theology and the social contract, The city upon a hill and American destiny, Congregationalism and Democracy, Original sin and Limited Government (Corbett, 1999: 37-39). Furthermore, Puritans who followed Calvinist doctrine had a particular topic that has been  discussed among scholars until now, after the first publication of Max Weber Essay, Protestant Ethic and The Spirit Capitalism (1904). Weber Protestant Ethic thesis concerned on the relation between Puritanism and the Spirit of Capitalism. Debate rooms among scholars were, does Weber would like to claim that Capitalism produce from Puritanism or Calvinism impact ??. Thus, This essay aims to scrutinize the relevance of Weber Thesis Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism. In addition, This essay connects the relation of capitalism, religion, and social change. It is significant to see the role of religious faith (Puritanism) to trigger the social change. Lanjutkan membaca “The Relevance of Protestant Ethics and the Development of Early Capitalism”

The Depiction of Occupy Wall Stret Movement In The Movie of Dark Knight Rises (2012)

The Depiction of Occupy Wall Stret Movement In The Movie of

 Dark Knight Rises (2012)   

Tori Nuariza Sutanto

Abstract

The Dark Knight Rises (2012) is the third series of Christopher Nolan Trilogy of an epic story of The Gotham City Hero called Batman in which the continuation of Batman Begins (2005) and the Dark Knight (2008). It is released in July, 12 2012. This third series of Batman’s movies publicly provokes controversy in the depiction of Bane’s movement as the potrayal of Occupy Wall Street Movement. This papers will reveal the depiction of the Bane’s Movement in the middle of the rise of OWS movement in U.S and its significance.  Lanjutkan membaca “The Depiction of Occupy Wall Stret Movement In The Movie of Dark Knight Rises (2012)”

The Development of American Studies : New Method and New Context of American Studies

The Development of American Studies : New Method and

New Context of American Studies

Tori Nuariza Sutanto

 

            Basically, American Studies explores United States of America through its history, diverse culture and global role. American studies is different than another degree of courses because it combines a number of subjects including history, sociology, politic, literature and etc, also studies a broad range of topics. The major contribution of American studies is the way to look in multiple aspect because in understanding America should be used multiple aspect in viewing. Thus, It needs interdisciplinary approaches to value the nations complexity engaging with historical, political, social, and other perspectives. American studies sees what kind of society represents and what culture shaped in a way to discover through the ‘text’ and reveals the context. Through the context, the American studies scholars search for the identity, meaning and its impact toward the society. Since meaning is socially constructed by individual through interactions and the reality is not the fixed, single, agreed and a measurable phenomenon, Thus there are multiple constructions and interpretations of reality in which continously changes over time. Therefore, American Studies employs qualitative research. According to Patton (1990) qualitative research is an effort to understand situations in their uniqueness as part of a particular context and the interactions there. Concerning to the goals of American studies scholars in which searches for identity, meaning, and its impact toward society, the use of qualitative research significantly contributes to the understanding of what the nature of American society and character, what is going on with the American reception toward such a propaganda, what their reaction toward the U.S government policies, what actually the world looks like in the new political trends of American society, and etc. In this way, American studies strives for depth of understanding with the scrutinizing multiple aspect and freely playing on interpretations. Lanjutkan membaca “The Development of American Studies : New Method and New Context of American Studies”

Media and Cultural Politic Role : Redefining Cultural Representation of Women

Media and Cultural Politic Role :  Redefining

Cultural Representation of Women

Tori Nuariza Sutanto

 

            The fact that Facebook function as a social networking site in which every people can express their beliefs, interest, and social habits, triggered new phenomenon of gender problem in the western society. Particularly, It is emerged since the feminist critics described that today we lived in a society which the people were  interested in rape jokes, believed violance against women was funny and habitually consumed cultural products that depicted women as glossy thinks. Thus, Facebook here functioned as a driven factor to perpetuate the spreading of violent mysogny culture in the social media, in which Facebook facilitates a social room and engages many people globally. Regarding to the status quo, the gender activist saw the opportunity to confront, contest, and change that condition whose positioned permissive attitudes to violance against women. Therefore, the #FBRape Campaign movement emerged on twitter, the other social media who was also popular in the Western society.

 

            Tuchman (1978) stated that the representation of women in cultural products were marginalized and underestimated. This state of condition as Tuchman said can be called as the symbolic annihilation of woman. Then, Tuchman in his mirroring hypothesis argues that mass media not only reflects dominant social values in the society, but also the symbolic representation how society looks themselves. Baehr (Strinati, 1995 : 283) has ever stated that women movement  has been responded critically what we called ‘sexism in the media’. In this way, It was usual if Facebook above accused of naturalizing sexist norms. The Emer O’Toole article in the Guardian, actually explained that the #FBRape Campaign challenge was primarily how to make policy change. The writer sees this phenomenon of #FB Rape Campaign as a counter discourse in which just perpeatuted the discourse conflict. This reaction is necessary but unfortunately not very substantive as the primary goal are supposed to redefine the cultural representation.

 

            Regarding the issues above, what Facebook company argument to perpetuate the cultural representation of violance against women, was to  defend its  policies of anti-cencorship as a basic of free speech. What some pioneering feminist decision to fight back through everyday sexism project actually somehow to develop culturall awareness of the society to not do violence against women. This condition mainly existed as a consequence of the same liberal epistemology which did clash each other. In this context, the writer propose a critical media education  in which the primary goal is to develop media literacy. It is very important for the society aware voices and ideological code in the our common cultural artifacts, also it can distinct between hegemonic ideology, image, discourse, and text which broke down the dominant. In addition, according to Kellner (2010) who thinks futuristically that media and culture  should be a device of social engineering since with the technological revolution can be used for power legitimation, liberation politic, manipulation and social enlightment depending on the users. The media literacy and media in terms of cultural activism at least open the possibility to create participatory democracy that support the individual interest and experience, promote good debate and democratic diversity. This condition open  up the wide range possibilities of developing future cyberdemocracy. It leads to the information superhighways that accomodates the counter discourese environment which is the core of participatory democracy. Thus, Media culture provide new challenges  to build new atmosphere and room for political interaction and discussion, reproducing new alternative form of media and culture, using media to promote social enlighment, and accelerating democratization.  

 

References

Kellner, Douglas. (2010). “Budaya Media Cultural Studies, Identitas, dan Politik : antara Modern dan Postmodern”. Yogyakarta : Jalasutra

Strinati, Dominic. (2010). “Popular Culture : Pengantar Teori Menuju Budaya Populer”. Yogyakarta : Ar-Ruzz Media

O’toole, Emer. (2013). “Facebook violently sexist page : opportunity for feminits” http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/may/23/facebook-violently-sexist-pages-twitter-fbrape?CMP=twt_gu . accesed on July 2013 00.30 A.M

Hunt, Carl. (2013). “Carol Hunt : Violent Mysogyny on Facebook is no laughing matter”. http://www.independent.ie/opinion/analysis/carol-hunt-violent-misogyny-on-facebook-is-no-laughing-matter-29313976.html  . accesed on July 16, 2013 01.30 A.M

Postfeminism Media Culture : Women Representation in Printed Advertisement Shifts Into Sexual Desirable Object

Postfeminism Media Culture : Women Representation

in Printed Advertisement Shifts Into Sexual Desirable Object

Tori Nuariza Sutanto

 

Concerning to the relation of women and the advertisement, It is unavoidably connected with the issue of sexism in media. Dyer stated that Advertisement represents women as a traditional stereotype in which feminine, sexual object, male gaze, and subordinate. Women’s appeal often exploit in several levels relates with their beuaty, body, and femininity. In particular, Gill (2007) stated one of the most striking aspects of postfeminist media culture is its obsessional preoccupation with the body. The body is presented simoultenously as women source’s power.

 

Today, the shifting in the from sexual object to sexual desirable object occured because of the cultural industry. Using body as a commodity is the indicators of how today cultural industry particularly printed adverstisement as a system of sign and symbols that position, constrain, objectify, and sell woman in the consumerist and capitalist society. For instance, Rebecca Hains (2013) critics of a disney princess Merrida who changed to be slimmer and bustier in order to fulfill the sexual desirable object.

 

The usage of body signs and body representation as commodity in capitalist system of society economically and culturally connected. Economically, advertisements work in the concept of marketing strategy, but culturally, advertisements work within system of ideology. The iconic Disney Princess merely strengthen the idea of sexualization of culture since Barbie has ever been become an icon of blonde woman whose sexually pleasure men. The redesign of new Merrida which is more sexier, bustier, skinnier and mature like what Rebecca Hain stated sent a message of inferiority. The shifting of women in the printed media adverstisement happened, previously where once sexualised representations of women in the media presented them as passive, mute objects of an assumed male gaze, shifted into today sexualization works differrently in many domains, Thus women are not objectified but are presented as active, desiring sexual objects who choose themselves in a seemingly objectified manner because it suits their liberated interests to do so (Goldman, 1992).

 

References

Gill, Rosalind (2007). Postfeminist media culture: elements of a sensibility. European journal of cultural studies, 10 (2). pp. 147-166. Sage Publications

Goldman, R. (1992). Reading ads socially. London ; New York, Routledge

Hains, Rebecca. (2013). Disney faces backlash over new “sexy” Merida; pulls new image from web site as aresult.http://rebeccahains.wordpress.com/2013/05/13/disney-faces-backlash/  accesed on July 16, 2013 00.35 A.M