Media and Cultural Politic Role : Redefining
Cultural Representation of Women
Tori Nuariza Sutanto
The fact that Facebook function as a social networking site in which every people can express their beliefs, interest, and social habits, triggered new phenomenon of gender problem in the western society. Particularly, It is emerged since the feminist critics described that today we lived in a society which the people were interested in rape jokes, believed violance against women was funny and habitually consumed cultural products that depicted women as glossy thinks. Thus, Facebook here functioned as a driven factor to perpetuate the spreading of violent mysogny culture in the social media, in which Facebook facilitates a social room and engages many people globally. Regarding to the status quo, the gender activist saw the opportunity to confront, contest, and change that condition whose positioned permissive attitudes to violance against women. Therefore, the #FBRape Campaign movement emerged on twitter, the other social media who was also popular in the Western society.
Tuchman (1978) stated that the representation of women in cultural products were marginalized and underestimated. This state of condition as Tuchman said can be called as the symbolic annihilation of woman. Then, Tuchman in his mirroring hypothesis argues that mass media not only reflects dominant social values in the society, but also the symbolic representation how society looks themselves. Baehr (Strinati, 1995 : 283) has ever stated that women movement has been responded critically what we called ‘sexism in the media’. In this way, It was usual if Facebook above accused of naturalizing sexist norms. The Emer O’Toole article in the Guardian, actually explained that the #FBRape Campaign challenge was primarily how to make policy change. The writer sees this phenomenon of #FB Rape Campaign as a counter discourse in which just perpeatuted the discourse conflict. This reaction is necessary but unfortunately not very substantive as the primary goal are supposed to redefine the cultural representation.
Regarding the issues above, what Facebook company argument to perpetuate the cultural representation of violance against women, was to defend its policies of anti-cencorship as a basic of free speech. What some pioneering feminist decision to fight back through everyday sexism project actually somehow to develop culturall awareness of the society to not do violence against women. This condition mainly existed as a consequence of the same liberal epistemology which did clash each other. In this context, the writer propose a critical media education in which the primary goal is to develop media literacy. It is very important for the society aware voices and ideological code in the our common cultural artifacts, also it can distinct between hegemonic ideology, image, discourse, and text which broke down the dominant. In addition, according to Kellner (2010) who thinks futuristically that media and culture should be a device of social engineering since with the technological revolution can be used for power legitimation, liberation politic, manipulation and social enlightment depending on the users. The media literacy and media in terms of cultural activism at least open the possibility to create participatory democracy that support the individual interest and experience, promote good debate and democratic diversity. This condition open up the wide range possibilities of developing future cyberdemocracy. It leads to the information superhighways that accomodates the counter discourese environment which is the core of participatory democracy. Thus, Media culture provide new challenges to build new atmosphere and room for political interaction and discussion, reproducing new alternative form of media and culture, using media to promote social enlighment, and accelerating democratization.
Kellner, Douglas. (2010). “Budaya Media Cultural Studies, Identitas, dan Politik : antara Modern dan Postmodern”. Yogyakarta : Jalasutra
Strinati, Dominic. (2010). “Popular Culture : Pengantar Teori Menuju Budaya Populer”. Yogyakarta : Ar-Ruzz Media
O’toole, Emer. (2013). “Facebook violently sexist page : opportunity for feminits” http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/may/23/facebook-violently-sexist-pages-twitter-fbrape?CMP=twt_gu . accesed on July 2013 00.30 A.M
Hunt, Carl. (2013). “Carol Hunt : Violent Mysogyny on Facebook is no laughing matter”. http://www.independent.ie/opinion/analysis/carol-hunt-violent-misogyny-on-facebook-is-no-laughing-matter-29313976.html . accesed on July 16, 2013 01.30 A.M